In search of a theoretical framework for factors influencing work and life balance
Work-life balance (WLB) has gained noticeable attention amid the pandemic. Yet before the outbreak of COVID-19, the increasing pace of life encouraged investigations into individual and organisational aspects of WLB. Physically and mentally healthy people help society develop and grow, whilst health issues caused by work-life imbalance lead to dissatisfaction with work and life. This discontent results in stress and stress-related illnesses, such as burnout. From the organisational point of view, WLB is a factor in the efficiency of an enterprise. Intentional or unintentional absence, high employee turnover, low productivity, higher insurance costs, and low job satisfaction are amongst the consequences of work-life imbalance. WLB has also been examined as part of employer branding, which is coming to the fore as shortage of labour prompts organisations to look for strategies for attracting and retaining employees.
This paper carries out content analysis to provide a theoretical framework for WLB and job satisfaction. It also offers a review of the literature on individual and organisational factors in WLB. Both groups of factors are found to be critical. These are job involvement, tenure, workload and scheduling, organisational culture (leadership, recreational opportunities, flexibility, supervisor support, autonomy, boundary management, alternative working methods etc.), occupational stress, and salary. In diverse fields, these factors have different weight.
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