The Russian-speaking diaspora in the Baltic states: a socio-cultural aspect
Currently, more than 20 million Russians permanently reside outside Russia. As migration trends show, their number will be increasing in the future. The Russian-speaking diaspora in the Baltic States is an essential part of the Russian community abroad. Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia used to be a single state with Russia for a long time. It could not but affect the formation of these countries as subjects of international politics. Since May 2004, the Baltic States have been members of the European Union. Together with Finland, they constitute the EU’s border space with Russia. To a large extent, it determines their geopolitical role in Europe. The article examines the Russian-speaking diaspora in the Baltic States. It substantiates the factors facilitating its stability and the preservation of the Russian cultural space, analyses the socio-economic and legal status of different groups of Russian-speaking residents, and identifies the peculiarities of various groups of the Russian-speaking population as well as prospects for the development of the diaspora.
1. Kabuzan, V. M. 2009, Formirovanie mnogonatsional’nogo naseleniya Pribaltiki (Estonii, Latvii, Litvy, Kaliningradskoi oblasti Rossii) v XIX—XX vv. (1795—2000) [Formation of the multinational population of the Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, the Kaliningrad region of Russia) in the 19th—20th centuries. (1795—2000)], Moscow (in Russ.).
2. Arutyunov, S. A. 2000, Diaspora is a process, Etnograficheskoe obozrenie [Ethnographic Review], № 2, p. 74—78 (in Russ.).
3. Dyatlov, V. I. 2004, Diaspora: the expansion of the term into Russian public practice, Diaspory [Diasporas], № 3, p. 126—132 (in Russ.).
4. Militarev, A. Yu. 2005, On the content of the term “diaspora” (to develop definitions), Diaspory [Diasporas], № 3, p. 8—18 (in Russ.).
5. Popkov, V. D. 2002, “Classical diasporas”: on the question of the definition of the term, Diaspory [Diasporas], № 1, p. 6—22 (in Russ.).
6. Tishkov, V. A. 2000, The Historical Phenomenon of the Diaspora, Etnograficheskoe obozrenie [Ethnographic Review], № 2, p. 43—63 (in Russ.).
7. Sheffer, G. 2003, Diaspora Politics: At Home Abroad, New York.
8. Shuval, J. T. 2012, Diaspora Migration: Definitional Ambiguities and a Theoretical Paradigm, International Migration, vol. 38, № 5, p. 37—49.
9. Gylys, P. 2013, Ekonomika, antiekonomika ir globalizacija, Vilnius.
10. Rybachuk, D. A. 2017, Russian Diaspora in Canada, Rossiya v Aziatsko-Tikhookeanskom regione. Izbrannye trudy nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii DVFU [Russia in the Asia-Pacific region. Selected works of the scientific-practical conference of FEFU], Vladivostok (in Russ.).
11. Zenkovsky, S. 2017, Russkoe staroobryadchestvo [Russian Old Believers], Minsk (in Russ.).
12. Filyushkin, A. I. 2005, The War for the Baltic States as a “Holy War” in the history of Russia and Europe, Materialy mezhdunarodnoi nauchnoi konferentsii «Baltiiskii region v istorii Rossii i Evropy» [Proceedings of the international scientific conference “The Baltic region in the history of Russia and Europe”], Kaliningrad, p. 57—66 (in Russ.).
13. Gurin, A. G. 2015, Riga v russkom soznanii [Riga in the Russian mind], Moscow (in Russ.).
14. Feigmane, T. D. 2012, Russkie obshchestva v Latvii (1920—1940 gg.) [Russian Societies in Latvia (1920—1940)], Riga.
15. Sergeev, V. P. 2005, Public organizations of the Russian national minority in the Republic of Estonia in 1920—1940, Novyi istoricheskii vestnik [New historical bulletin], № 12, p. 91—109 (in Russ.).
16. Pribaltiiskie russkie: istoriya v pamyatnikakh kul’tury [Baltic Russians: history in cultural monuments], 2014, Riga (in Russ.).
17. Abyzov, Yu. I. 2000, Baltiiskii arkhiv. Russkaya kul’tura v Pribaltike [Baltic Archive. Russian culture in the Baltics], vol. 4, Riga.
18. Heino, H. 2007, Mass consciousness of Russians and their religiosity in the context of a national minority (Russians in contemporary Estonia). In: Starye tserkvi, novye veruyushchie [Old churches, new believers], M.-SPb. (in Russ.).
19. Matsulevitš, T. 2013, Mälu professor R. Blumi, Vikerkaar, № 6, p. 29—38.
20. Kochegarova, T. M. 2016, Russians and Indigenous Peoples of the Baltic States: Origins of Mutual Perception, Aktual’nye problemy Evropy [Actual problems of Europe], № 2, p. 211—229 (in Russ.).
21. Polishchuk, V. V. 2017, Features of the political participation of the Russian-speaking population of Estonia and Latvia, Etnograficheskoe obozrenie [Ethnographic Review], № 2, p. 9—23 (in Russ.).
22. Buzaev, V. V. 2012, Pravovoe polozhenie russkogovoryashchikh men’shinstv v Latvii [Legal status of Russian-speaking minorities in Latvia], Riga (in Russ.).
23. Simonyan, R. Kh. 2006, The problem of non-citizenship in the Baltic States, Gosudarstvo i pravo [State and law], № 3, р. 51—59 (in Russ.).
24. Saar, А. 2012, Muutused avalikus arvamuses, Looming, № 2, p. 43—47.
25. Kochegarova T. M. 2012, Russian diaspora in Latvia: changes over the past decade, Vostochnaya Evropa [Eastern Europe], № 1—2, p. 31—39 (in Russ.).
26. Simonyan, R. Kh. 2004, Changes in the mass consciousness of the Russian diaspora in the Baltic countries, Psikhologicheskii zhurnal [Psychological journal], № 2, p. 43—54 (in Russ.).
27. Simonyan, R. Kh. 2019, The Baltic States in the context of the Ukrainian crisis, World Economy and International Relations, № 9, p. 61—68.
28. Tabuns, A. 2016, Identity, Ethnic Relations, Language and Culture. In: Muižnieks, N. How Integrated Is Latvian Society? An Audit of Achievements, Failures and Challenges, University of Latvian Press.
29. Matulionis, A., Freiute-Rakauskiene, M., 2014, Identity of the Russian ethnic group and its expression in Lithuania and Latvia. Comparative analysis, Mir Rossii, № 1, p. 87—114.