Балтийский регион
Baltic Region
ISSN: 2079-8555 (Print)
ISSN: 2310-0524 (Online)
Migration Studies
Pages 111-128

Swedish Islamism as a social and political aspect in the formation of an ethno-confessional parallel society



A new actor in the European geopolitical space — an ethno-religious “parallel society”- is transforming the social and political fabric of Sweden. An institutionalised Muslim parallel society is emerging in vulnerable areas, such as marginalised immigrant districts of Swedish cities, through the efforts of Islamist political, social, and economic structures adhering to the religious and political doctrine of the Muslim Brotherhood (this organization is banned in the Russian Federation). Committed to maintaining the Muslim identity, these organisations seek gradual Islamisation of the Swedish population through ideological influence on immigrants with a Muslim background. These efforts thwart cultural assimilation attempts and hinder the implementation of Swedish integration policy. The lack of research into the peaceful Islamisation of Swedish society and the related problems of Islamophobia, anti-Muslim racism, and radicalisation of Muslim youth lends urgency to investigating the influence of Islamist organisations on the Swedish Muslim immigrant community. This study analyses the literature, sources, and statistics on the essential aspects of Swedish Islamisation to provide a holistic picture of the formation of an ethno-religious parallel society in Sweden. The findings help evaluate the effectiveness of the national policy on confronting parallel societies, as well as of measures to promote democratic values as the foundation of a united Swedish society.

1. Khan, S. 2016, The Battle for British Islam: Reclaiming Identity from Extremism, London, SAQI.

2. Carlbom, A. 2019, Samhället måste öppna sig för mångfalden. Mångfaldspolicyn som politisk möjlighet till islamisk activism, Malmö, Malmö Universitet, 2019, available at: https://www.msb.se/RibData/Filer/pdf/28798.pdf (accessed 07.04.2021).

3. Vidino, L. 2017, The Muslim Brotherhood in Austria. Rapport, Wien, Universität Wien.

4. Roy, O. 2016, Jihad and Death: The Global Appeal of Islamic State, London, Hurst & Company.

5. Andreeva, L.A. 2020, A Challenge to the Modern Constitutional System of Germany: The Activities of the Muslim Brotherhood, Outlines of global transformations: politics, economics, law, vol. 13, no. 4, p. 192—210. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.23932/2542-0240-2020-13-4-9.

6. Norell, M., Carlbom, A., Durrani, F.K.P. 2016, Muslimska Brödraskapet i Sverige, available at: https://rib.msb.se/filer/pdf/28248.pdf (accessed 07.04.2021).

7. Pargeter, A. 2013, The Muslim Brotherhood: From Opposition to Powe, London, Saqi Books.

8. Hjärpe, J. 2010, Islamismer: Politisk-religiösa rörelser i den muslimska världen, Malmö.

9. Tibi, B. 2012, Islamism and Islam, New Haven, Yale University Press.

10. Al-Anani, Kh. 2016, Inside the Muslim Brotherhood, Oxford, Oxford University Press.

11. Roald, A.S. 2014, The Discourse of Multiculturalism: An Obstacle to Cultural Change? Tidskrift for Islamforskning, vol. 8, no. 1, p. 248—274. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.7146/tifo.v8i1.25330.

12. Carlbom, A. 2018, Islamiskaktivism i en mångkulturell kontext–ideologisk kontinuitet eller förändring? Malmö, Malmö Universitet, available at: https://www.msb.se/RibData/Filer/pdf/28456.pdf (accessed 07.04.2021).

13. Otterbeck, J. 2000, Islam på svenska: tidskriften Salaam och islams globalisering, Lund.

14. Schuck, C. 2013, A Conceptual Framework of Sunni Islamism, Politics, Religion and Ideology, vol. 14, no. 4, p. 485—506. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21567689.2013.829042.

15. Hübinette, T., Abdullahi, M. 2018, Swedish Muslims in Cooperation Network Alternative Report, Stockholm, available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/Treaties/CERD/Shared%20Documents/SWE/INT_CERD_NGO_SWE_30871_E.pdf (accessed 07.04.2021).

16. Lundin, T. 2019, Svenskhet i förändring — en kulturvetenskaplig analys av debatten om gettopaketet i svensk press, Göteborg, available at: https://gupea.ub.gu.se/bitstream/2077/62140/1/gupea_2077_62140_1.pdf (accessed April 07, 2021).

17. Roy, O. 2004, Globalized Islam: The Search for a New Umm, New York, Columbia University Press.

18. Dianina, S. Yu., Khalil, M.A.M., Glagolev, V.S. 2019, Cultural Islam in Northern Europe, Balt. Reg., vol. 11, no. 3. p. 142—160. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.5922/2079­8555­2019­3­8.

19. Kandil, H. 2015, Inside the Brotherhood, Cambridge, Polity press.

20. Johansson, E. (ed.) 2013, Forskning om utsatthet hos förmodade muslimer och islamofobi i Sverige, Oxford, Oxford Research, available at: https://www.do.se/globalassets/publikationer/rapport-forskning-diskriminering-muslimer-sverige.pdf (accessed 07.04.2021).

21. Gardell, M. 2010, Islamofobi, Stockholm, Leopard Förlag.

22. Larsson, G. 2014, Islam och muslimer i Sverige — en kunskapsöversikt, Stockholm, available at: https://www.myndighetensst.se/download/18.50d91f6b155046e7152c7081/1464948170878/Nr%204,%20Islam%20o... (accessed 07.04.2021).

23. Agafoshin, M.M., Gorokhov, S.A. 2020, Impact of external migration on changes in the Swedish religious landscape, Balt. Reg., vol. 12, no. 2, p. 84—99. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.5922/2079-8555-2020-2-6.

24. Eliassi, B. 2015, Constructing cultural Otherness within the Swedish welfare state: The cases of social workers in Sweden, Qualitative Social Work, vol. 14, no. 4, p. 554—571, doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1473325014559091.

25. Talalaeva, E. Yu., Pronina, T.S. 2020, Ethno-confessional immigrant ghettos as a national security problem in Denmark’s social and political discourse, Balt. Reg., vol. 12, no. 3. p. 55—71. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.5922/2079-8555-2020-3-4.

26. Alfthan, V. 2021, No-Go Zones i Norden. En jämförande analys mellan två förorter i Finland och problemområden i Sverige och Danmark, available at: https://www.theseus.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/356450/LP_Alfthan.pdf?sequence=2&isAllowed=y (accessed 07.04.2021).

27. Fredriksson, T., Torstensson, M. 2019, Islamistisk radikalisering. En studie av särskilt utsatta områden, Stockholm, available at: https://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:1338258/FULLTEXT02 (accessed 07.04.2021).

28. Ranstorp, M., Ahlin, F., Hyllengren, P., Normark, M. 2018, Mellan Salafism och Salafistisk Jihadism — Påverkan mot och utmaningar för samhället, Stockholm, available at: http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:1231645/FULLTEXT02.pdf (accessed 07.04.2021).

29. Gustafsson, L., Ranstorp, M. 2017, Swedish Foreign Fighters in Syria and Iraq: An Analysis of Open-Source Intelligence and Statistical Data, Stockholm, Bromma, available at: https://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:1110355/FULLTEXT01.pdf (accessed 07.04.2021).

30. Häggström, H., Brun, H. (eds.), 2019, Antagonistiska hot och dess påverkan på lokalsamhälle, Stockholm, Bromma, available at: https://www.fhs.se/download/18.4de5088316deae29189350/1571641866102/Antagnostiska%20hot%20och%20dess... (accessed 07.04.2021).

31. Andersson, M.R., Mattson, C. 2017, Från ord till handlingsplan. En rapport om kommunala handlingsplaner mot våldsbejakande extremism. Sveriges Kommuner och Landsting, Karlstad: Advant Produktionsbyrå, available at: https://docplayer.se/108172120-Fran-ord-till-handlingsplan-en-rapport-om-kommunala-handlings-planer-... (accessed 07.04.2021).

32. Mulinari, S.L. 2017, Slumpvis utvald. Ras-/etnisk profilering i Sverige, Stockholm: Civil Rights Defenders and Stockholm University, available at: http://www.criminology.su.se/polopoly_fs/1.361560.1513162298!/menu/standard/file/CRD-5600-Rapport_Sl... (accessed 07.04.2021).

33. Cato, J. 2012, När islam blev svenskt: föreställningar om islam och muslimer i svensk offentlig politik 1975—2010, Lund, Lunds Universitet.

34. Amghar, S., Khadiyatoulah, F. 2017, Disillusioned militiancy: the crisis of militancy and variables of disengagement of the European Muslim Brotherhood, Mediterranean Politics, vol. 22, no. 1, p. 54—70. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13629395.2016.1230941.

The article