Labour migrants from the Middle East Arab countries in Sweden: a paradigm shift
Middle East Arab diasporas, primarily the Iraqi and Syrian ones, are playing an increasing role in the economy and demography of Sweden. This study aims to describe the formation of economically active diasporas in Sweden over the past three decades. There has been a paradigm shift in the immigration and business activity of people from the Middle East Arab countries in Sweden. Diaspora leadership changes depending on the situation in the countries of origin and migration phenomena driven by political and military shocks. This change affects the migration process and the role of communities in the economic life of the country. The study draws on the work of top research centres and data from leading Swedish and international statistical agencies. The rise and subsequent decline in Syrian immigration, which included labour migrants, refugees, and asylum seekers, did not restore the unconditional leadership of the Iraqis among the Arab communities of Sweden. The significant business activity of Syrian immigrants, their professional skills, level of education, and broad business ties make the diaspora a likely leader in the Arab community. These four factors also contribute to easier migrant integration into Swedish society.
2. Olaya-Contreras, P., Balcker-Lundgren, K., Siddiqui, F., Bennet, L. 2019, Perceptions, experiences and barriers to lifestyle modifications in first-generation Middle Eastern immigrants to Sweden: a qualitative study, BMJ Open, vol. 9, no. 10. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-028076.
3. Brell C., Dustmann C., Preston I. 2020, The Labor Market Integration of Refugee Migrants in High-Income Countries, The Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol. 34, no. 1, p. 94—121.
4. Zayed, H. 2018, Integration of “refugees” improves the economic conditions of their new homeland, Scientific American, 28 June, available at: https://www.scientificamerican.com/arabic/articles/news/asylum-seekers-are-not-a-burden-for-western-... (accessed 4 September 2021) (In Arabic).
5. Fleischmann, F., Phalet, K. 2017, Religion and National Identification in Europe: Comparing Muslim Youth in Belgium, England, Germany, the Netherlands, and Sweden, Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, November, p. 1—18.
6. Steiner, K. 2015, Images of Muslims and Islam in Swedish Christian and secular news discourse, Media, War & Conflict, April, vol. 8, no. 1, p. 20—45.
7. Akmir, A. 2015, European Arabs: identity, education and citizenship, Contemporary Arab Affairs, April-June, vol. 8, no. 2, p. 147—162.
8. Lacatus, C. 2007, What is a blatte? Migration and ethnic identity in contemporary Sweden, Journal of Arab & Muslim Media Research, Dec., vol. 1, no. 1, p. 79—92.
9. Lagervall, R. 2013, Representations of religion in secular states: the Muslim communities in Sweden, Contemporary Arab Affairs, October, vol. 6, no. 4, p. 524—538.
10. Bursell, M. 2018, Perceptions of discrimination against Muslims. A study of formal complaints against public institutions in Sweden, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, December, p. 1—18.
11. Bursell, M. 2014, The Multiple Burdens of Foreign-Named Men — Evidence from a Field Experiment on Gendered Ethnic Hiring Discrimination in Sweden, European Sociological Review, June, vol. 30, no. 3, p. 399—409.
12. Borell, K., Gerdner, A. 2013, Cooperation or Isolation? Muslim Congregations in a Scandinavian Welfare State: A Nationally Representative Survey from Sweden, Review of Religious Research: The Official Journal of the Religious Research Association, December, vol. 55, no. 4, p. 557—571.
13. Khosravi, Sh. 2012, White masks/Muslim names: immigrants and name-changing in Sweden, Race & Class, January, vol. 53, no. 3, p. 65—80.
14. Borevi, K. 2013, The Political Dynamics of Multiculturalism in Sweden, Challenging Multiculturalism: European Models of Diversity, Edinburgh University Press, p. 138—160.
15. O’Neill, A. 2021, Sweden — Statistics & Facts. Apr 1, Statista.com, available at: https://www.statista.com/topics/2406/sweden (accessed 14 May 2021).
16. Irastorza, N., Emilsson, H. 2020, The Effects of the 2008 Labour-Migration Reform in Sweden: An Analysis of Income, GLO Discussion Paper, no. 680, Essen, 1—31, available at: https://www.econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/224907/1/GLO-DP-0680.pdf (accessed 24 June 2021).
17. Anxo, D., Ericson, Th. 2015, Labour Market Measures in Sweden 2008—13: The Crisis and Beyond, International Labour Organization, p. 1—33, available at: https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—-dgreports/—-inst/documents/publication/wcms_449934.pdf (accessed 4 September 2021).
18. Kuznetsov, A.V. 2019, Foreign migrants in major cities of the Baltic region: origins, trends, prospects, Baltic region — cooperation region 2019: Conf. proceedings (Kaliningrad, 27—31/08/2019), 16—28 (In Russ.).
19. Bevelander, P., Irastorza, N. 2014, Catching Up: The Labor Market Integration of New Immigrants in Sweden, ILO, Migration Policy Institute, April, 1—32, available at: https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—-ed_protect/—-protrav/—-migrant/documents/publication/wcms... (accessed 4 September 2021).
20. Minyazhetdinov, I. 2018, “Atypical” terrorism in the ethno-confessional conflict in Iraq (on the example of the situation around the terrorist attack in the city of Khan Bani Saad), Religion and Society in the East, vol. II, p. 89—112 (In Russ.).
21. Lyck-Bowen, M. 2020, Multireligious Cooperation and the Integration of Muslim Migrants in Sweden, The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, July, vol. 690, no. 1, p. 168—174.
22. Agafoshin, M.M., Gorokhov, S.A. 2020, Impact of external migration on changes in the Swedish religious landscape, Balt. Reg., vol. 12, no. 2, p. 84—99. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.5922/2079-8555-2020-2-6.
23. Balabeykina, O. A. Martynov, V.L. 2017, Confessional space of modern Sweden: Christian denominations, Balt. Reg., vol. 9, no. 3, p. 113—127. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.5922 / 2074-9848-2017-3-6.
24. Lundgren, S. 2019, The Assyrians: Fifty Years in Sweden, The Middle East in the Contemporary World, Transl. by Carl Ahlstrand, Mölndal, Nineveh Press.
25. Woźniak-Bobińska, M. 2020, Modern Assyrian/Syriac Diaspora in Sweden, Lodz, University of Lodz.
26. Orange, R. 2017, Syrian refugees open for business in Sweden, Deutsche Welle, 7 February, available at: https://www.dw.com/en/syrian-refugees-open-for-business-in-sweden/a-37428707 (accessed 11 July 2020).
27. Andersson, L., Hammarstedt, M. 2012, Ethnic Enclaves, Networks and Self-Employment among Middle Eastern Immigrants in Sweden, International Migration, vol. 53, no. 6, p. 590—604, doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00343404.2020.1839638.
28. Tausch, A. 2019, Migration from the Muslim World to the West: Its Most Recent Trends and Effects, Jewish Political Studies Review, vol. 30, no. 1/2, p. 65—225.
29. Fedorov, G.M., Voloshenko, E.V., Mikhailova, A.A., Osmolovskaya, L.G., Fedorov, D.G. 2012, Territorial differences in the innovative development of Sweden, Finland and the Northwestern Federal District of the Russian Federation, Balt. Reg., vol. 3, no. 13, p. 87—102 doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.5922/2079-8555-2012-3-6.
30. Kholyavko, S.I. 2014, Swedish model of spatial planning: functions, problems and solutions, IKBFU’s Vestnik. Natural and medical sciences, no. 7, p. 159—168 (In Russ.).