Spatial Planning in the European Union: Practices to Draw on in Russia
In this article, we employ a systemic-complex methodology to consider the targets, functions, and content of spatial planning in European countries and compare them to urban planning practices in Russia. We analyse concepts and terminology used in spatial planning and related areas — territorial, marine, and underground planning. The article examines the evolution of the ideas of spatial planning in the EU. We consider the documentary framework for spatial planning from the last third of the 20th century to the present. The basic principles of spatial planning are identified in the article. We describe the level of territorial development management in the EU and its member states. The concept of ‘best practices’ is interpreted as an approach that includes the transfer of expert knowledge, concepts, ideas and practices developed in certain conditions and their adaptation to the needs of a different set of conditions in order to attain similar goals using the components of the transferred technique, model, or policy. We present a classification of spatial planning systems. We show how civil society is being involved in spatial planning in the EU and Russia. We stress the need to draw on the EU spatial planning experience, in particular, the involvement of civil society in project evaluation. At the same time, it is important to take into account the features of Russian natural and socioeconomic conditions.