Балтийский регион
Baltic Region
ISSN: 2079-8555 (Print)
ISSN: 2310-0524 (Online)
The innovative development of the Baltic region: territorial differen-tiation
Pages 55-65

The innovative process in the Baltic Sea region



In order to maintain its global competitiveness in the future, the Baltic Sea region (BSR) needs to preserve and improve its technological capability and innovativeness. This article focuses on innovations in the Baltic Sea region, particularly on external innovation drivers and innovation environments in the BSR and individual countries within the region. Firstly, some definitions of innovations, innovation drivers, and characteristics of a favourable innovation environment are presented. Secondly, the current condition of innovation environments in the BSR is described and the innovation performances of Baltic countries are compared. Finally, the research aims to conclude, as well as to analyse, the future innovation development of the BSR. The research material for this desk study is collected from various sources, including journal articles, statistics, media, research reports, and other publications.

1. European Commission 2012, ICT for Competitiveness & Innovation, available at: http://ec. europa. eu/enterprise/sectors/ict/index_en. htm (accessed 9 July 2012).
2. Eurostat 2012, Innovation statistics, Statistics Explained, available at:http://epp. eurostat.ec.europa.eu/statistics_explained/index.php/Innovation_statistics (accessed 10 July 2012).
3. Eurostat 2012, Patent statistics backgrounds, Statistics Explained, available at: http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/statistics_explained/index.php/Patent_statistics_backgrounds (accessed 10 July 2012).
4. Eurostat 2012, Statistics, available at: http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/statistics/themes (accessed 9 July 2012).
5. Federal State Statistics Service of Russian Federation 2011,Russia in figures— 2011, available at: http://www.gks.ru/bgd/regl/b11_12/Main.htm (accessed 9 July 2012).

6. Finland’s Ministry of Employment and the Economy 2012, Innovative environments,
available at: http://www.tem.fi/index.phtml?l=en&s=2362 (accessed 9 July 2012).
7. Schwab, K. (ed.). 2011, The Global Competitiveness Report 2011—2012, World Economic Forum, available at: http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GCR_Report_2011—12.pdf (accessed 10 July 2012).
8. Hautamäki, A. 2010, Sustainable Innovation, A New Age of Innovation and Finland’s
Innovation Policy, Sitra Reports 87, available at: http://www.sitra.fi/julkaisut/raportti87.pdf (accessed 10 July 2012).
9. Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology UNU-MERIT 2011, Innovation Union Scoreboard 2011, The Innovation Union’s performance scoreboard for Research and Innovation, 7 February 2011, available at: http://www. proinno-europe. eu/inno-metrics/page/innovation-union-scoreboard-2011 (accessed 10 July 2012).
10. Miles, I. 2010, Demand-led innovation, Mini Study 11, Global Review of Innovation Intelligence and Policy Studies, March 2010, available at: http://gripspublic.mediactive.fr/knowledge_base/view/898/demand-led-innovation (accessed 10 July 2012).
11. Nordic Innovation 2011, What is innovation? available at: http://www.nordicinnovation.org/innovation/defining-innovation/ (accessed 10 July 2012).
12. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD 1997, National Innovation Systems, available at:http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/35/56/2101733.pdf (accessed 10 July 2012).
13. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD 2005, Oslo Manual: Guidelines for Collecting and Interpreting Innovation Data, available at:
http://www.oecd.org/document/23/0,3746,en_2649_34451_35595607_1_1_1_1,00.html (accessed 10 July 2012).
14. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD 2011, OECD Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard 2011: Innovation and Growth in Knowledge Economies, available at: http://www.oecd.org/document/10/0,3746,en_2649_33703_39493962_1_1_1_1,00.html (accessed 10 July 2012).
15. Porter, M. E. and Stern, S. 2001, Innovation: Location Matters,MIT Sloan Management Review, Summer 2001, p. 28—36, available at: http://www.ibr.hi.is/sites/files/ibr/out.pdf (accessed 9 July 2012).
16. World Bank 2011, Key Variables, available at: http://go.worldbank.org/9PM78XYUU0 (accessed 10 July 2012).
17. World Bank 2012, KEI and KI Indexes, available at: http://info.worldbank.org/etools/kam2/KAM_page5.asp (accessed 9 July 2012).
18. World Intellectual Property Organization WIPO 2011, International Patent Filings Recover in 2010, available at: http://www.wipo.int/pressroom/en/articles/2011/article_0004.html (accessed 10 July 2012).

The article